Car History 4U

Manufacturers of Fuel Cell Cars

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8.9   Manufacturers of Fuel Cell Cars 
  • 8.9.1Audi

    • Audi produced the 66 kW PEM fuel cell/battery hybrid “A2” vehicle in 2004. It was fuelled by hydrogen and had a maximum range of 137 miles (220 km).

  • 8.9.2Daihatsu

    • Daihatsu produced its first fuel cell vehicle; the methanol fuelled Move EV-3C, in 1999.

    • In 2001 it produced the Move FCV-Kll, a 30kW PEM fuel cell/battery hybrid. The vehicle used compressed hydrogen at 3,600 psi.

    • It had maximum range of 75 miles (120 km) and a top speed of 66 mph (105 kph).  
       
  • 8.9.3Daimler-Chrysler

    • In 1994 the company produced “NECAR 1”, a van powered by a 30kW PEM type fuel cell.

    • Compressed hydrogen at 3600 psi was used and the vehicle, which had a top speed of 56 mph (90 kph), had a maximum range of 81 miles (130 km).  

    • Between 1994 and 2005 the company produced about 13 different fuel cell powered vehicles, including 4 that used methanol (NECAR 3 in 1997, Jeep Commander 2 and NECAR 5 in 2000, and NECAR 5.2 in 2001).

    • NECAR 5.2 and the 2001 Natrium (mini van) model were fuel cell/battery hybrids and both had a maximum range of 300 miles (482 km).

    • The Natrium utilised an on-board hydrogen processor. Hydrogen being produced by reacting sodium borohydride fuel with borox.

    • In 2005 the company produced the F600 Hygenius, a hydrogen fuelled, research car.

    • The car used a 60 kW PEM fuel cell, with a lithium-ion battery to store any surplus energy. Power being provided from either the fuel cell or battery as required.

    • During parking the battery powered the car’s electric motor, whilst during acceleration the fuel cell and the battery both provided power.

    • During braking the electric motor also acted as a generator to charge the battery.

    • The car had a maximum range of about 250 miles (400 km) and a top speed of 105 mph (168 kph).
       
  • 8.9.4.  Esoro

    • Esoro, in Switzerland, produced a 6.4kW fuel cell/battery hybrid car called the Hycar in 2001 that used compressed hydrogen.

    • It had a top speed of 75 mph (120 kph) and a maximum range of 225 miles (360 km).
       
  • 8.9.5.  Fiat

    • In 2001 Fiat produced the Seicento Elettra 7kW PEM fuel cell/battery hybrid. It used compressed hydrogen and had a maximum range of about 100 miles (160 km).

    • The fuel cell/battery hybrid Seicento Hydrogen was produced in 2003. Additional information required.

    • The company produced the fuel cell “Panda Hydrogen” vehicle in 2006.

    • The vehicle’s “Andromeda ll” 40kW fuel cell stack used compressed hydrogen at over 5,100 psi. It had a maximum range of over 125 miles (200 km).
       
  • 8.9.6.  Ford

    • The P2000 HFC sedan produced in 1999 was the Ford Company’s first fuel cell powered vehicle.

    • It was fuelled by compressed hydrogen, had a maximum range of 100 miles (160 km) and achieved the equivalent to 67 miles per gallon.

    • Note: 1 kg of hydrogen is equivalent to about 1 US gallon of petrol.

    • An 85kW PEM fuel cell powered Focus FCV was produced in 2000. It was fuelled by compressed hydrogen at 3,600 psi.

    • In 2002 the company produced the Advanced FCV. This vehicle was a fuel cell/battery hybrid and was fuelled by compressed hydrogen at 5,000 psi.

    • It achieved the equivalent of about 50 miles per gallon.

    • The Explorer produced in 2006 was a fuel/battery hybrid that used compressed hydrogen at 10,000 psi. It had a maximum range of 350 miles (560 km).

    • In 2007 Ford introduced the Airstream concept vehicle (HySeries Edge), a fuel cell plug-in hybrid.

    • The electric motor being powered by lithium-ion batteries that are re-charged by the vehicle’s HySeries Drive fuel cell. 

  • 8.9.7.  General Motors

    • In 1997 General Motors introduced the Sentra, a mini van that was powered by a 50 kW PEM fuel cell. Further information required.

    • The following year, in 1998, the company produced the Zafira mini van. It was also powered by a 50kW PEM fuel cell and used methanol.

    • It had a top speed of 75 mph (120 kph), a maximum range of 300 miles (480 km) and fuel consumption equivalent to 80 miles per gallon.

    • Two vehicles were introduced in 2000, the fuel cell/battery hybrid Precept FCEV concept car and the HydroGen 1.

    • HydroGen 1 was an 80kW PEM fuel cell/battery hybrid that was fuelled by 16 gallons of liquid hydrogen. It had a maximum range of 250 miles (400 km).

    • HydroGen 3 was produced in 2001 and was powered solely by a 94kW fuel cell and used liquid hydrogen. It had a maximum range similar to that of the HydroGen 1.

    • The company also produced a 25kW PEM fuel cell/battery hybrid Chevy S-10 pickup truck in 2001.

    • It used low sulphur/clean gasoline (CHF) and achieved 40 mpg.  

    • Vehicles introduced in 2002 included the Hy-Wire, Proof of Concept, car. This fuel cell powered vehicle used 4.4 lbs (2 kg) of compressed hydrogen at 5,000 psi.

    • The Advanced HydroGen 3 vehicle was also introduced in 2002. The 94kW fuel cell was powered by compressed hydrogen at 10,000 psi.

    • The Sequel, a 73kW PEM fuel cell/battery hybrid was introduced in 2005. The car, which had a maximum range of 300 miles (480 km), was fuelled by compressed hydrogen at 10,000 psi.

    • In 2006 the company introduced the Equinox, a 93kW PEM fuel cell/battery hybrid.

  • 8.9.8.  Honda

    • In 1999 Honda produced a 60kW PEM fuel cell/battery hybrid car called the FCX-V1. It was fuelled by hydrogen stored in metal hydride.

    • In 1999 they also produced the FCX-V2, which was a 60kW PEM fuel cell vehicle that used methanol.

    • The fuel cell/ultra capacitor FXC-V3 model was produced in 2000. The car used compressed hydrogen at 3,600 psi and had a maximum range of 108 miles (173 km).

    • The fuel cell/ultra capacitor FXC-V4 model produced in 2001 used compressed hydrogen at 5,000 psi. It had a maximum range of 185 miles (296 km).

    • The FXC-V3 and V4 models both achieved the equivalent of about 50 miles per gallon.

    • In 2003 Honda introduced the Kiwami fuel cell concept vehicle.

    • The FCX 100kW PEM fuel cell concept vehicle was produced in 2006. It included a lithium-ion battery.

    • The new fuel stack used by Honda in the 2006 FCX model was about 180kg lighter and 40% smaller in volume than previous fuel cells. 

    • The fuel cell also featured vertical flow design, which allowed gravity to assist in the discharge of the water produced.

    • The 2006 FCX had a maximum range of 357 miles (570 km).

  • 8.9.9.   Hydrocell

    • In about 2002 Hydrocell in Finland produced a prototype car called Fantasia that was powered by an alkaline gel fuel cell and a lead acid battery.

  • 8.9.10.  Hyundai

    • In 2000 Hyundai produced the ambient-pressure 75kW PEM fuel cell Santa Fe SUV. It used compressed hydrogen and had a maximum range of 100 miles (160 km).

    • The Santa Fe SUV version produced in 2001 also used an ambient-pressure 75kW PEM fuel cell but had a maximum range of 250 miles (400 km).

    • The 80kW PEM fuel cell Tucson model produced in 2004 used compressed hydrogen and had a m aximum range of 188 miles (300 km).

  • 8.9.11.  Kai

    • In 2004 Kai produced the 80kW PEM fuel cell Sportage vehicle.  It used compressed hydrogen and had a maximum range of 188 miles (300 km).

  • 8.9.12  Mazda

    • Mazda produced the Demio, a compact passenger car in 1997. It was powered by a 20kW PEM fuel cell/ultra capacitor and used hydrogen stored in metal hydride.

    • The Demio had a top speed of about 57 mph (90 kph) and a maximum range of 106 miles (170 km). 

    • In 2001 the company produced the Premacy FC-EV that was powered by an 85kW PEM fuel cell. The vehicle used methanol. 

  • 8.9.13.  Mitsubishi

    • Mitsubishi produced the 40kW PEM fuel cell/battery hybrid SpaceLiner concept vehicle in 2001. The vehicle used methanol.

    • The 68kW PEM fuel cell/battery hybrid Grandis FCV mini van was produced in 2003. The vehicle used compressed hydrogen and had a maximum range of about 94 miles (150 km).

  • 8.9.14.  Nissan

    • In 1999 Nissan produced the methanol fuelled R’nessa SUV. This 10kW PEM fuel/battery hybrid vehicle had a top speed of 44 mph (70 kph).

    • The 85kW PEM fuel cell/battery Xterra SUV produced in 2000 was fuelled by compressed hydrogen. . At what pressure?

    • The 75kW PEM fuel cell/battery hybrid X-Trail SUV produced in 2002 was fuelled by compressed hydrogen at 5,000 psi.

    • In 2003 Nissan introduced the fuel cell/battery hybrid Effis commuter concept vehicle. Information required.

  • 8.9.15.  PSA Peugeot/Citroen

    • A 30kW/PEM fuel cell/battery hybrid called the Peugeot Hydro-Gen was produced in 2001.

    • It used compressed hydrogen, had a top speed of 60 mph (96 kph) and a maximum range of 187 miles (300 km).

    • The company also produced the 55 kW PEM “Taxi PAC” in 2001. The fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle was fuelled with 80 litres of compressed hydrogen at 4,300 psi.

  • 8.9.16.  Renault

    • Renault introduced the EU Fever project in 1997. A Laguna wagon was powered by a 30kW PEM fuel cell/battery hybrid that used liquid hydrogen.

    • The vehicle had a maximum range of 250 miles (400 km) and a top speed of 75 mph (120 kph).

  • 8.9.17.  Shanghai Automotive Industry/GM

    • In 2001 the Pan Asia Automotive Technology Centre, a joint venture of Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation and General Motors, introduced the Phoenix FCV.

    • The Phoenix was an eight-passenger fuel cell/battery hybrid mini van. The 25kW PEM fuel cell was fuelled by compressed hydrogen and had a maximum range of 125 miles (200 km).

  • 8.9.18.  Suzuki

    • In 2001 Suzuki introduced the Covie fuel cell concept car. 

    • Two years later, in 2003, the company unveiled a fuel cell vehicle called the Mobile Terrace. Further information on both vehicles required.

  • 8.9.19.  Think Nordic

    • The methanol fuelled Th!nk FC5 car was introduced in 2000. It contained an 85kW fuel cell.  

    • The methanol fuel was passed through a ‘reformer” which extracted pure hydrogen. This, along with compressed air, was then passed to the PEM fuel cell stack.

    • The fuel cell stack comprised of several hundred individual fuel cells, each one producing about one volt.

  • 8.9.20. Toyota

    • In 1992 Toyota started to develop fuel cell vehicles.

    • In 1996 and 1997 the company produced two versions of their fuel cell/battery hybrid RAV 4 FCEV (SUV).

    • The 1996 model was fuelled by hydrogen stored in metal hydride and had a maximum range of 155 miles (248 km).

    • The 1997 model was fuelled by methanol and had a maximum range of 312 miles (500 km).

    • In 2001 Toyota produced three vehicles (FCHV-3, 4 & 5), all 90 kW PEM fuel cell/battery hybrids.

    • All three used different fuel. FCHV-3 used Hydrogen stored in metal hydride and FCHV-4 used compressed hydrogen at 3,600 psi.

    • FCHV-5’s fuel cell produced electricity from hydrogen derived from Clean Hydrogen Fuel (CHF), using Toyota’s CHF reformer.

    • Note: CHF can be obtained from natural gas, coal or crude oil.

    • In 2002 the company produced a fuel cell/battery hybrid (FCHV), fuelled by compressed hydrogen at 5,000 psi. It had a maximum range of 180 miles (288 km).   

    • The FINE-S concept fuel cell sports car was introduced in 2003 and the FINE-T concept fuel cell hybrid car was introduced in 2005.

  • 8.9.21.  Volkswagen

    • Volkswagen produced a 15kW PEM fuel cell/battery hybrid in 1999. The project was called “EU Capri”. The vehicle used methanol.

    • The HyMotion vehicle was produced in 2000. The 75kW PEM fuel cell used liquid nitrogen. The car had a maximum range of 220 miles (350 km).

    • In 2002 the company produced the 40kW PEM HyPower car.  The fuel/super capacitor hybrid used compressed hydrogen and had a maximum range of 94 miles (150 km).

    • The 80kW PEM fuel cell/battery hybrid Touran HyMotion car was introduced in 2007.

  • 8.9.22.  Others

    • BMW (2000) and PSA Peugeot Citroen (2002) produced vehicles that contained a fuel cell/battery APU (Auxiliary Power Unit).

    • The APU in the BMW vehicle used gasoline/liquid nitrogen. The PSA Peugeot Citroen vehicle used catalyzed chemical hydride - sodium borohydride.
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