Car History 4U

History of Spanish Motor Car / Automobile Manufacturers

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8.13 Spain

  • 8.13.1. Abadal 

    • Francisco Abadal, who used to work for Hispano-Suiza (see Section 8.13.9), produced two luxury models between 1912 and 1923

    • They were fitted with either a 3,104cc four-cylinder engine or a 4,521 cc six-cylinder engine. 

    • From about 1917 Buick engines were fitted and these cars were called Abadal- Buicks. 

    • Approximately 170 Imperia-Abadals were built in Belgium, including a 2,992 cc sports model. Between what dates? Up to 1923?


  • 8.13.2. America

    • The America was manufactured from 1917 to 1922.  

    • Three types were built; the Tipo A, the 1,097 cc Tipo B and the Tipo C racing model. How many of each were produced and between what dates? 


  • 8.13.3. Authi  

    • The Authi Car Company, which was formed in 1965, was the result of a collaboration agreement between Nueva Montana Quijano and the British Motor Corporation. 

    • The company produced the following models: Authi Mini (1968-1975), Authi Mini Cooper (1973-1975), Morris 1100/1300 (1966-1972), Austin Victoria (1972-1975) and the Austin de Luxe (1974-1975). How many cars were built? 

    • In 1976 the company was purchased by the SEAT Car Company (see Section 8.13.11).  


  • 8.13.4. Barreiros  

    • The company was founded in 1954 as Barreiros Diesel S.A and initially it produced diesel engines. 

    • In 1963 a licensing agreement was reached with Chrysler to build the Dodge Dart in Spain. 

    • Between 1965 and 1977 a total of 17,589 Barreiros Darts were produced. These were based on the Dodge Dart GL, the Dodge Dart GT (“sporty" version) and the Dodge 3700GT. 

    • A diesel version called the “Barreiros Diesel" was also produced. 

    • In 1969 Chrysler Europe took over the company. 

    • From the mid-1970s Barreiros started manufacturing the Chrysler 180 and later the Simca 1307 (called the Chrysler 150 in Spain) and the Simca Horizon. 

    • In 1978, PSA Peugeot Citroën purchased Chrysler Europe and former models were renamed; the Chrysler 150 becoming the Talbot 150. Barreiros later produced the Talbot Solara and Samba. Between what dates? 


  • 8.13.5. Biscuter  

    • In the late 1940s Gabriel Voisin (French) designed a small car called the Biscooter. The license to build the vehicle was obtained by Autonacional S.A. 

    • The first “Biscuter” car was launched in Spain in 1953 and was called the Series 100 or the “Zapatilla (little shoe)”. 

    • The original models did not have doors, windows or a reverse gear.  In what year/model were windows and doors fitted?   

    • It was powered by a one cylinder, 197 cc, two-stroke 9 hp (7kW) engine which supplied power only to the right front wheel.  

    • The Biscúter car was produced for about ten years. When did production cease and how many were made?   


  • 8.13.6. David 

    • Cylclecars developed by José Maria Armangué were produced by the David car company between 1913 and 1923

    • These small two or three-seater cyclecars were powered by either a single cylinder 6/8 hp, or a four cylinder 6/8 hp or 10/12 hp engine. A belt and pulley transmission resulted in 16 speeds.   

    • In 1951 the company restarted car production. About 75 three-wheeler cars, powered by a single cylinder two-stroke, 345 cc engine were built. From 1951 until when? 


  • 8.13.7. Elizalde 

    • In 1909 Arturo Elizalde Rouvier started a company was called "Sociedad Mercantil J. M. Vallet y Cia" to manufacturer car parts. 

    • A prototype called the Tipo 11 was launched in mid 1914

    • In 1915, King Alfonso XIII owned a 20cv Biada-Elizalde cabriolet Tipo 20.   

    • A 25cv sports version of the Tipo 20 was produced in 1919 as the Reine Victoria. It is believed to be the first Spanish car to feature four-wheel brakes.   

    • In 1920 the company started production of the four-cylinder, 3,817 cc, Model 29. Variants of this model were built until 1927

    • Production of the 8,143 cc straight-eight model, known as the Tipo 48, also began in 1920.

    •  The car had a built in tire pump which could also be used as a vacuum cleaner. 

    • A 5,181 cc straight-eight Gran Sport version of the Tipo 48 model, capable of 100 mph (160 kph), was also produced. 

    • Production of Elizalde cars ceased in 1928


  • 8.13.8. Eucort 

    • The Eugenio Cortes SA (company) manufactured cars from 1945 to 1951.Or 1953?  

    • The first Eucort model, which was based on a pre WW2 Germany Dampf Kraft Wagen (DKW) design, was fitted with 764 cc twin-cylinder two stroke engine. 

    • Four-door sedan and a three door estate versions were available.  

    • In 1950 the company started production of its final model, the two stroke 1,034 cc Victoria. 

    • By the time the company ceased car production in 1951 (1953?)  about 1,500 Eucort cars (including taxis) had been built. 


  • 8.13.9. Hispano-Suiza  

    • In 1898 Emilio de la Cuadra started a company in Barcelona called “La Cuadra” to produce electric cars. Four years later it was acquired by J. Castro. 

    • He changed the name to “Fábrica Hispano-Suiza de Automóviles” (Spanish-Swiss Car Factory).  

    • By the end of 1903 this company went bankrupt, re-emerging in 1904 as “La Hispano-Suiza Fábrica de Automóviles”. 

    • In 1906 Hispano-Suiza produced two models of 3.8 and 7.4 litres. Information on these models required. Types, hp, etc. 

    • Between 1907 and 1914 the company mass-produced a range of cars, plus a number of hand-built racing models, including the Type A (1907), Type 15 (1910) and the four-cylinder 3,620 cc 65 hp Alphonse XIII (1911-14).  

    • In 1911 a factory called “Hispano France” was established just outside Paris, moving to another location in 1914, when they took the name “Hispano-Suiza”. 

    • The “Stork” statuette fitted on top of each car’s radiator was based on the squadron emblem painted on the side of the aircraft used by a WWI French ace, who owned a Hispano-Suiza car. 

    • The Hispano-Suiza H6 range was introduced in 1919.  It was mainly built at the Paris factory. A few model built in Spain were called the T41.  

    • About 2,350 of these ultra-luxury models were made up to 1933; the 6,597 cc H6B (1919-32), and H6C (1926-33).

      Hispano-Suiza 1933

    • Between 1924 and 1927 the H6B was built under license by Skoda of Czechoslovakia. 

    • The H6 was one of the first cars to be fitted with power-assisted brakes and originally came with a 6.5 litre engine. An 8 litre engine was fitted to the H6C model. 

    • In 1923 the French part of Hispano-Suiza became known as the Societé Française Hispano-Suiza. 

    • The 8 litre T56 model was produced from 1928, plus a 3,750 cc T49 model. Were they produced in Spain and between what dates?

    • Other models produced in Spain the 1920s include the 4.7 litre T30 4.7 (1914-24) and the 3,089 cc T16 (1921-24).  

    • In 1930 Hispano-Suiza took over Ballot, the French car manufacturer.  

    • The six-cylinder 4,580cc Junior model was produced from about 1930 to 1934. It was replaced by the 5.1 litre 120 hp K6 (1934-37). 

    • The 9,425 cc Type 68, which was produced in 1931, later evolved into an 11,310 cc version. A six-cylinder version, the K6, succeeded the Junior in 1934.  

    • During the 1930s the company produced a range of luxury cars, including the 4.5 litre 95 hp HS26 (1932), the 9.4 litre 210 hp and 11.3 litre 260 hp J12 model (1932-38) How many of each were made? 

    • The last model produced by the company in Spain was the T6ORL. The car was produced from 1934 to about 1943. Is the 1943 date correct? What was the last model produced in France and when, 1938? 

    • In 1946 the company sold their automotive assets to “Empresa Nacional de Autocamiones S.A” (Enasa), a Spanish vehicle manufacturing company. 


  • 8.13.10.Kapi  

    • Automóviles y Autoscooter Kapi produced cars from 1950 to 1955.  

    • The first model was a three-wheeled two door car that was powered by a 125 cc single-cylinder two-stroke engine.  

    • Other models include the Chiqui, a three wheeler with single wheel at the rear, the Platillo Volante, a four wheel coupé and the M190 with miniature Mercedes 190 body. 


  • 8.13.11. SEAT  

    • SEAT, which was formed in 1950 by the Instituto Nacional de Industria with Fiat assistance, stands for Sociedad Española de Automóviles de Turismo (Spanish Saloon/Sedan Car Company). 

    • In 1953 the company produced their first model, the SEAT 1400. 

    • This 44 hp (33 kW) four-door saloon car had a top speed of 75 mph (120 kph). When production ceased in 1964 over 98,000 had been made. 

    • Models produced in the 1960s include the 800, 850, 1500 and 124.  815,319 of the 800 models were made between 1964 and 1967

    • SEAT produced its one millionth car in 1968. By 2003 this figure had risen to more than 14 million. 
    • During the 1970s SEAT produced the 67 hp (50 kW) 1200 model (1975 to 1980) and over 1.5 million 131 models (1974 to1984). Other models produced at this time include the 127, 128, 132, 133 and the Ritmo. 

    • Fiat’s assistance ended in 1981 and was replaced by a cooperation agreement with the Volkswagen Group. 

    • Up to 1981 SEAT cars resembled Fiat models. The 1982 Ronda model was the first car produced by SEAT without assistance from Fiat.  

    • Other cars produced during the 1980s include the Fura (1981-86), Panda (1980-86), Marbella (1986-98), Malaga (1985-92) and Ibiza. 

    • Three generations of the Ibiza model were made between 1985 and 2007.   

    • SEAT became a subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group in 1990

    • Models produced between 1990 and 2007 include the Arosa, Cordoba, Leon, Toledo, Alhambra and the Altea.  

    • In 2008 the company introduced the 1.4 litre, 170 hp (127 kW) Bocanegra (4th generation Ibiza) concept car. 

    • 2008 models include the Leon Cupra, Cordoba, Toledo, Alhambra and the F Series Leon, Ibiza and Altea.   


  • 8.13.12. Other Spanish Car Manufacturers  

    • More data on the following cars is required. 

    • Otro Ford: The Otro Ford, a car based mainly on the Model T Ford, was produced from 1922 to 1924

    • Pegaso: During the 1950s Pegaso built about a hundred Z-102 sports cars. 

    • Izaro: The Izaro cyclecar was built in 1922. Models ranged from 600 cc to 700 cc. 

    • El Fenix: El Fenix cars were built by Domingo Tamaro Y Roig from 1901 to 1904. Only a few twin-cylinders models with gas engines were produced. 

    • AFA: Four cylinder AFA cabriolet cars were built in 1943 and 1944 by Juan Aymerich Casanovas. How many? More data required.

    • Anglada: Anglada cars were manufactured by the Anglada Fábrica de bicicletas y automóviles company from 1902 to 1905. The cars had either a one or four-cylinder engine and produced 6 hp to 36 hp.  

    • An Anglada was the first Spanish car owned by King Alfonso XIII who purchased a 24 hp four- cylinder model in 1904

    • Hispano Aleman: The company started producing replica cars in 1979. Four of the replica models they built were the Mallorca (Lotus Seven), Castilla (Lotus Europa), Vizcaya (Porsche 944) and the BMW 328. 


  • 8.13.13. Other Information 

    • Of the 18 Spanish car manufacturers listed above, 12 were located in or near Barcelona (Abadal, AFA, America, Biscuter, David, El Feniz, Elizalde, Eucort, Hispano-Suiza, Kapi, Pegaso and SEAT).
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